Tuesday, December 14, 2010


Pablo Picasso, 
Still Life with Chair Caning, 1912
(Musée Picasso)

The invention of collage as an art practice was, in the saying of a famous 20th century art critic in a well known essay: “a major turning point in the evolution of Cubism, and therefore a major turning point in the whole evolution of modernist art in this century”. (1)

Collage explodes what we may call  “le cadre de la representation”, namely, the space and the very structure, that is, the context or frame of representation, its boundaries and interior configuration. It does so by admitting a transit between representation and the real, by incorporating elements that may be provisionally or momentarily subordinated to its general structure, but are never fully absorbed into the matter of representation.  A ‘transit’ which is also in many ways a parallel “confrontation” between mind and matter. The collaged elements exist, subsist, persist therefore in the dubious, dual and perhaps dialectic condition of being at the same time vehicle, substance, function of the signifying process and the irreducible, intractable point of resistance in that process. They remind us of the ‘always already’ in-significant foundations, limits and surpluses of the processes of representation and meaning.

Assigned their places and functions within the produced object, or supra-object, the collaged elements become sutures within the flow of representation. They reveal the interstices of representational practices, they are the articulations that bring to the fore the structures and processes of coding, they display the work of elaboration that brings to life representational objects and representing–represented subjects.

In this sense, collage is indeed a self-reflective practice of art, a modern practice announcing,  anticipating, and exemplifying  in the early 20th century (and for the century at large) that “concluding” realization of self- consciousness in which Hegel saw the mark of the modern world and of modern culture as such.

Marcelo Guimaraes Lima

(1) Clement Greenberg - Collage http://www.sharecom.ca/greenberg/collage.html 

Detail of the above

 images source: http://www.musee-picasso.fr/pages/page_id18547_u1l2.htm

Saturday, December 11, 2010


Maurice Denis (French, 1870–1943)
Springtime, ca. 1894–99
Oil on canvas, 80 x 97.8 cm
Signed with studio monogram: M/D (in circle)
Gift of David Allen Devrishian, 1999 (1999.180.2ab)

Source: Metropolitan Museum of Art

Pierre Bonnard,  
circa 1889

Édouard Vuillard
In bed [Au lit] 1891

Thursday, December 9, 2010

Les Demoiselles d´Avignon, 1907

Pablo Picasso
Les Demoiselles d´Avignon, 1907
Oil on canvas
243.9 cm × 233.7 cm (96 in × 92 in)
Museum of Modern Art.
Acquired through the Lillie P. Bliss Bequest, New York City

The Demoiselles d´Avignon by Pablo Picasso, painted in 1907 and publicly exhibited for the first time in 1916, is a work made up of strong tensions, an image on the verge of disintegration, and yet held together by the very forces it brings forth in contradictory relationships, both at the thematic level and in its rather unexpected and unprecedented formal elements.

At the thematic level, the initial symbolic and narrative elements of sexuality and marginality, linking the painting to themes and moods previously explored by Picasso, are exacerbated to the point of dissolution of the painting’s thematic unity and framework. That process is concomitant with the formal disintegration of space and figures, and the progressive reworking of the human figure as the painter reconsiders and restructures the figurative elements into ever more urgent and angular forms.

Indeed form and space are deconstructed into triangular, cuneiform elements that interpenetrate, their hard edges and pointed forms cutting through implied surfaces, exploding the picture plane, blasting the represented surface and its elements as if also cutting through the actual surface of the painting in an intensified play of the ambiguities of figure and ground relationships.

The Demoiselles d’ Avignon is indeed a kind of narrative of displacements and of a severe and deliberate decentering process affecting not simply the artwork but the painter as well. With this painting Picasso deconstructs himself in a kind of cathartic experiment. He clears the ground for the radical shift of Cubism.

In one sense, Picasso’s Cubism can be said to be a response to the irruption of the Demoiselles d’ Avignon, an attempt to come to terms with its challenge, to rationalize the disturbing formal and emotional effects thereby produced, and to channelize the unconscious and subconscious energies and motifs that emerged from and with the artist’s radical gesture: the making and remaking of a painting that represented a remaking of painting itself.

The long interval between the production and the exhibition of the work shows that the Demoiselles was a painting that was able to “complete itself” after being abandoned by the artist in a state of formal and thematic “irresolution”.   That “irresolution” will be the ground of a new art, the experimental, that is, the simultaneous constructive and deconstructive process of creating the artwork, will define the nature of art from now on.

Marcelo Guimaraes Lima

Wednesday, December 8, 2010


As an art movement Fauvism was short-lived and, in its initial forms, restricted to a few artistic personalities. It was however influential as one of the first relatively unified expressions of the art of the early 20th century. It was an essay indeed of a new art, with all the limitations of a first approach, that is, in many respects tentative and localized. And yet, it was able to reverberate later into the century in the works of Henri Matisse, one of its main representatives.

Fauvism was a moment of liberation of energies for young artists such as Derain, Vlaminck, Matisse and others.  Their examples opened the way to a renewed approach to color in painting. From its beginnings in France, the style was echoed in other artistic centers in Europe and contributed to the elaboration of other viewpoints and new concepts about the structure and the functions of painting in the new century.

Indeed, the foundational or structural role of color in painting is the main or, in a sense, the “exclusive” focus of Fauvism.  The work of art is a heightened expression of the encounter of the artist and his motifs in nature, in the landscape, in the city, or the encounters between the artist and his models and friends. It is a celebration of life energies.

It is indeed one of the first examples of a modern “expressionistic” art form, that is, an art based on the projection of subjective energies and states of mind shaping the look of things, objects, scenes, etc. However, the subjective power in Fauvism is controlled by the search for a new sense of order born from the objective tensions of colors and forms.

In this sense, the spirit of Fauvism, the product of a distinctive French cultural and artistic context, has to be sharply distinguished from Expressionism as developed mainly in Germany, in spite of the many formal analogies and convergences between the two art movements.

Marcelo Guimaraes Lima

André Derain
The Pool of London, 1906
Oil on canvas
657 x 991 mm
Tate Gallery, London

 André Derain
Henri Matisse, 1905
Oil on canvas
460 x 349 mm
Tate Gallery, London

 Henri Matisse
La Femme au chapeau, 1905
(Woman with hat, portrait of his wife, Amélie Parayre)

 Maurice de Vlaminck (1876-1958)
Restaurant de la Machine a Bougival, ca.1905

Photograph by Sharon Mollerus,
Creative Commons licensed

Maurice de Vlaminck,  (1876—1958)
Landscape with Red Trees 1908

Paul Sérusier, Le Talisman (1888): the lesson of Gauguin

Paul Sérusier, 
Le Talisman, l’Aven au Bois d’Amour
The Talisman, The Aven at the Bois d’Amour. 1888
Oil on wood panel. 
h: 11 x w: 8 inches.

The lesson of Paul Gauguin to the young painter Paul Serusier in 1888 in Pont-Aven, Brittany, where Gauguin had settled in 1886, was stated as:

"Comment voyez vous cet arbre? Il est vert? Mettez donc du vert, le plus beau vert de votre palette - et cette ombre, plutôt bleue? Ne craignez pas de la peindre aussi bleue que possible."

"How do you see this tree? It is green? Use green then,  use the most beautiful green in your palette - and this shadow, rather blue? Don't be afraid to paint it as blue as possible."

The small painting called The Talisman reported the lesson in a concrete form to Maurice Denis and the group that would be consolidated around him as Les Nabis (The Prophets). Denis would synthesize its central aesthetic concept in a famous statement:

"Se rappeler qu'un tableau - avant d'être un cheval de bataille, une femme nue, ou une quelconque anecdote – est essentiellement une surface plane recouverte de couleurs en un certain ordre assemblées."

"To remind oneself that a picture, before being a battle horse, a nude, or any other anecdote, is essentially a flat surface covered with colors assembled in a certain order."

Maurice Denis: 'Definition du neo-traditionism', Art et Critique, 1890. (available here)

Maurice Denis,
Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, ca. 1893.
Oil on canvas 48 x 36 cm

Wednesday, December 1, 2010

Paul Cézanne (1839 –1906)

It is possible to say that the works of Cezanne represent at the same time a conclusion and, in a sense, a new point of departure. Cezanne concludes the 19th century formal developments initiated with Impressionism, and his “conclusion” is a somewhat paradoxical one.

Impressionism is indeed Cezanne’s starting point. And yet, the originality of his art comes from probing the limits of the aesthetics and the practice of Impressionism, pressing the boundaries of the style, touching the limits of the art form. Out of his efforts against the “dead ends” of the new art, out of the “impasse” of Late Impressionism, and by way of a kind of “reversal” of some of the central tenets of the Impressionist credo and praxis, Cezanne was able to produce original works that would point to new developments in the art of the early 20th century. 

The art of Cezanne is in this sense, a “bridge” between the two centuries.  Not so much in the letter, or the flesh of his style, although here also we can see a few seeds of future developments, but in the spirit of his quest, that is, in his demands for a new constructive or structural art.

In the early 20th century, Picasso and Braque, creating the new forms of Cubism, will see themselves as heirs to Cezanne.  Distilled from Cezanne’s works, the geometric “reduction” of Cubism implied also the realization that the construction of a new pictorial language could not be separated from the production of a new pictorial matter, and therefore of a new objectivity of the work of art, a new art-object, expressing the new materiality of the new century.

Marcelo Guimaraes Lima

Paul Cézanne (1839–1906)
Mountain Sainte-Victoire1882-1885
Oil on canvas, 65,5 × 81,7 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art
New York

Paul Cézanne (1839–1906)
Mountain Sainte-Victoire, 1885-1887
Oil on canvas, 67 × 92 cm
Courtauld Institute Galleries

Paul Cézanne (1839–1906) 
Road Before the Mountain Sainte-Victoire  1898-1902,
Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg

Monday, November 29, 2010


"We have proposed Symbolism as the only denomination capable of describing in a reasonable way the present tendency of the creative spirit in art [...] Enemy of teaching, of declamation, of false sensibility, of objective description, Symbolist poetry intends to clothe the Idea with a sensorial form which, however, will not in itself be the final aim but, while serving to express the Idea, will be subjected to it.[...] In this art [...] all concrete phenomena do not manifest themselves as such: they are the sensorial appearances whose function is to represent their esoteric affinities with the primordial Ideas.[...] For the exact expression of its synthesis, Symbolism requires an archetypical and complex style "

Le Symbolisme - Manifeste de Jean Moréas ,
Figaro, September 18, 1886.

the above is my translation from:
Les premières armes du symbolisme
edited and published by Léon Vanier
Paris, 1889
available at: http://www.archive.org/details/lespremiresarme00vanigoog

Odilon Redon (1840–1916)
Les yeux clos 1890

Gustave Moreau (1826–1898) 
Thracian Girl Carrying the Head of Orpheus on His Lyre
1865, Oil on canvas
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Arnold Böcklin (1827–1901)
Der Toteninsel (Isle of the Dead) 1886
Oil on wood, 80 × 150 cm
Museum der bildenden Künste

Ferdinand Hodler (1853–1918) 
Die Nacht (The Night)  1889-1890
Oil on canvas, 116.5 × 299 cm
Kunstmuseum Bern
Bern (Switzerland)


The term Post-Impressionism applies to the artists that, around and after the 1880s, were both developing and deviating or departing from the original aspects of Impressionism. Focusing on particular formal and expressive possibilities opened to painting by the first generation of Impressionist artists, a number of Post-Impressionists painters developed to their “logical conclusion” some of the formal inventions and tendencies of Impressionism. Others, within the visual languages of Impressionism, refashioned painting and refined or redirected the new artistic structures into new ground, deepening and radicalizing aspects of the formal revolution started by Monet and his colleagues. While others still, focused on the expressive possibilities that the new art made possible.

The first and second aspects of the Post-Impressionist adventure are exemplified in the explorations of a number of artists in the period from Seurat to Cezanne.  Gauguin and Van Gogh are examples of the uses of new formal concepts to explore the subjective aspects and the cultural conditions of art at the end of the century.

The art of the period is also influenced by Symbolist aesthetics.  With Symbolism, the development of an art of the imagination, the dream and the fantastic, expressing a kind of exacerbated Late Romantic sensibility, a type of “Romanticism of exhausted passions”, impacts the literature and visual arts of the period, as a counter-current to the realistic and positivist tendencies or allegiances of Impressionism and of the dominant Post-Impressionists currents. Symbolism represents a “spiritualist” reaction to the “materialism” of the age, taking these terms in a generalized sense and also as relative and specific to some of the ideological self-representations of the period.  These artistic categories and classifications do not exclude transitional and mixed forms. In fact, the art of the Fin-de-siècle is also marked by cross-fertilizations and by diverse kinds of conceptual and formal “hybrids”.

Marcelo Guimarães Lima

 Seurat, The Circus, 1891; 
Oil on canvas, 73 x 59 1/8 in; unsigned; 
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

 Van Gogh
The night café, 1888; 
Yale University Art Gallery


Femmes de Tahiti [Sur la plage] 1891
(Tahitian Women [On the Beach])
  Oil on canvas, 69 x 91 cm 
Musee d'Orsay, Paris

Still Life With a Basket (Kitchen Table)
c. 1890-95; Musée d'Orsay, Paris 

Sunday, November 28, 2010


"Modernity is the transient, the fleeting, the contingent; it is one half of art, the other being the eternal and the immovable." wrote Baudelaire. The paintings of Seurat  offered the modern  practical synthesis between the "fleeting" and the "eternal", between the contingent forms of modern experience and its artistic expression as a prospective and enduring vision across time, that is, as a kind of  "transhistorical" expression of historical experience. 

For Seurat the function of the work of art is to preserve as artistic form the memory of the actual, of living time, at the same time that it provides the seed of future artistic developments.  In the works of Seurat the  basic elements of the temporal flux of perception that the analysis of visual experience by the impressionists revealed are systematized into a method of color analysis and of synthetic formal expression. In his paintings the elementary particles of color and their exchanges provide the energy for the construction of  large linear rhythms and imposing stable forms. The result is the monumental representation of modernity. Of which the heroic and the prospective is one half, the other being a type of  reification of time and of historical experience and structures.

Seurat's Neoimpressionism reflected important aspects of the scientific and progressive ideologies of his period. Charles Blanc (1813-1882) in the Grammar of the Graphic Arts (1867) had summarized, and therefore popularized among the artists of the time, Chevreul's researches on color. 

Marcelo Guimarães Lima


Georges Seurat (1859 – 1891)
A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of 
La Grande Jatte
Oil on canvas
207.6 cm × 308 cm
Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago

Georges Seurat (1859 – 1891)

Bathers at Asnières, 1884,
National Gallery, London

Georges Seurat (1859 – 1891)
Circus Sideshow (or Parade de Cirque), 1887–88, 
Metropolitan Museum of Art,
New York City

detail of Parade (above)


Paul Signac (1863 – 1935)
Breakfast, 1886-1887, 
Kröller-Müller Museum, Otterlo, 
The Netherlands

Paul Signac
Portrait of Félix Fénéon, 1890

Oil on canvas
73.5 cm × 92.5 cm
Museum of Modern Art, New York

Paul Signac (1863–1935) 
View of the Port of Marseilles, 1905
Oil on canvas
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

The Painters of Modern Life

Charles Baudelaire, profile by
Manet, Edouard (1832 - 1883
Etching,  1869

 Portrait of Charles Baudelaire by
Manet, Edouard 

 Etching, 1869

Charles Baudelaire

The Heroism of Modern Life

"Before trying to isolate the epic quality of modern life and to show, by giving examples, that our age is no less rich than ancient times in sublime themes, it may be asserted that since every age and every people have had their own form of beauty, we inevitably have ours.... All forms of beauty, like all possible phenomena, have within them something eternal and something transitory -- an absolute and a particular element. Absolute and eternal beauty does not exist, or rather it is nothing but an abstract notion, creamed off from the general surface of different types of beauty. Parisian life is rich in poetic and wonderful subjects. The marvellous envelopes and saturates us like the atmosphere; but we fail to see it." -- pp. 104-107.

Charles Baudelaire from "The Salon of 1846"
Baudelaire; selected writings on art & artists, 
P.E. Charvet, ed., 1981.  

The Painter of Modern Life

Modernity is the transient, the fleeting, the contingent; it is one half of art, the other being the eternal and the immovable. There was a form of modernity for every painter of the past; the majority of the fine portraits that remain to us from former times are clothed in the dress of their own day. They are perfectly harmonious works because the dress, the hairstyle, and even the gesture, the expression and the smile (each age has its carriage, its expression and its smile) form a whole, full of vitality. You have no right to despise this transitory fleeting element, the metamorphoses of which are so frequent, nor to dispense with it. If you do, you inevitably fall into the emptiness of an abstract and indefinable beauty, like that of the One and only woman of the time before the Fall. If for the dress of the day, which is necessarily right, you substitute another, you are guilty of a piece of nonsense that only a fancy-dress ball imposed by fashion can excuse. Thus the goddesses, the nymphs, and sultanas of the eighteenth century are portraits in the spirit of their day.

No doubt it is an excellent discipline to study the old masters, in order to learn how to paint, but it can be no more than a superfluous exercise if your aim is to understand the beauty of the present day. The draperies of Rubens or Veronese will not teach you how to paint watered silk d'antique, or satin à la reine, or any other fabric produced by our mills, supported by a swaying crinoline, or petticoats of starched muslin. The texture and grain are not the same as in the fabrics of old Venice, or those worn at the court of Catherine. We may add that the cut of the skirt and bodice is absolutely different, that the pleats are arranged into a new pattern, and finally that the gesture and carriage of the woman of today give her dress a vitality and a character that are not those of the woman of former ages. In short, in order that any form of modernity may be worthy of becoming antiquity, the mysterious beauty that human life unintentionally puts into it must have been extracted from it. It is this task that M. G. particularly addresses himself to.

Charles Baudelaire (1863)

Édouard Manet (1832 - 1883)
Le déjeuner sur l'herbe
("The Luncheon on the Grass")
Oil on canvas
208 cm × 265.5 cm
Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Edgar Degas (1834 – 1917)
Place de la Concorde
1875 Oil on canvas,
78.4 x 117.5 cm

Hermitage, St Petersburg

Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864 – 1901)
Au Moulin Rouge
1892, 1895
oil on canvas
123 × 140,5 cm

Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841- 1919)
Le Moulin de la Galette 1876 

Oil on canvas, 131 x 175 cm;
Musée d'Orsay

Saturday, November 27, 2010


Claude Monet
Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant)
Oil on canvas
48 cm × 63 cm 
Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

Claude Monet
Haystacks, (Midday), 1890-91, 
National Gallery of Australia 


Claude Monet
Wheatstacks (End of Summer)  1890-91
Oil on canvas,  60 cm × 100 cm
Art Institute of Chicago

 Claude Monet
Wheatstack (Snow Effect, Overcast day)
(Meule, effet de neige, temps couvert),
1890-91. Oil on canvas.
Art Institute of Chicago. 

Impressionism was a pivotal moment in the development of art in the 19th century. In the genesis of Impressionism we can point out the demand for truthfulness in art interpreted in a radically new way, and also the interrelated demand for the expression of contemporary life.

These demands allow for radical formal innovations affecting all at once the procedural or technical aspects of painting, the notion of representation, and with it the very concept of painting as an art form. Landscape painting becomes the quintessential genre in which the experimental nature of Impressionism is played and displayed. Painters like Monet, Sisley and Pissaro among others, paint the French countryside. Manet, Degas, Renoir and others celebrate modern life in their artworks.

The impressionist artist paints not simply the object of his gaze, but the relationship itself between the observer and the world. The dynamic nature of reality requires a dynamism of vision. The shifts in the appearance of the painter´s subjects such as the changes of form and color in landscape painting due to the transformations of light call for a new understanding and a new expression of the painted form. Color becomes the central element of painting in ways departing  radically from the past: it is now a foundational or  infrastructural element (in the end,  color becomes both medium and subject.) A new understanding of the activity of perception introduces the dimension of time into the art of painting.

Marcelo Guimarães Lima

link: Monet Haystacks series

Claude Monet
Rouen Cathedral, Full Sunlight, 1894,
Musée d'Orsay, Paris, France.

Friday, November 26, 2010

Gustave Courbet (1819-1877) : the Passion of the Present

The Painter's Studio; A Real Allegory, 1855
Oil on canvas, 361 x 598 cm
Musee d'Orsay, Paris 

The original title of The Painter´s Studio by Courbet is:  'Allégorie réelle: intérieur de mon atelier, déterminant une phase de sept années de ma vie artistique'. The Studio is therefore a 'Real Allegory'. But allegory, as we know belongs to the order of the symbolic, not of the real. The designation by Courbet appears to be a contradictio in adjecto, a contradiction in terms. And yet, as a functional designation it does clarify the meaning of the scene for the viewer: it locates the subject of the painting in the painter´s life and career. 

Courbet transforms, recreates and supersedes traditional genre by fusing formal and rhetorical elements of historical painting, allegorical representation and the self portrait. Indeed The Studio is the reinvention of the self portrait as autobiography, a symbolic and yet real or realistic narrative centred in the figure of the painter. 
Perhaps its sole predecessor is Velazques´ Las Meninas, that also revolves around the figure of the artist. Both paintings present to the viewer, in their own specific forms and contexts, another contradiction in terms: they are "clear enigmas".

The life story of the modern artist is the subject of Courbet´s masterwork. The Studio is a place that congregates a multitude, colleagues, friends and the public, and where the real and the imaginary or symbolic come together, clarifying each other in isonomic exchanges and relations. The work of art is identified to the life work as the construction of a subjectivity.  In this case , an artistic subjectivity. By way of the artist, the subject of  The Studio is therefore Modern Art itself, the self-representation or self-elaboration of the concept of art in the changed cultural and historical context of the 19th century.

Marcelo Guimarães Lima

Gustave Courbet,
A Burial at Ornans, 1849-1850,
oil on canvas, 314 x 663 cm.

Musee d'Orsay, Paris.

Monday, November 22, 2010

Jacques-Louis David and Neoclassicism: the Past as Future

Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825) became the artistic interpreter of the revolutionary historical changes in France at the end of the 1700s. The style he created, Neoclassicism, responded to the ideological context of French society within the developments leading to, and under the impact of the Great Revolution of 1789. David reinvested the tradition of Classicism, and therefore modified also its aesthetics, in the sense of a new understanding of the context of art, and of the role of art and artists in the new times. In this sense, we can say that his works and ideas united both a retrospective and a prospective perspective on the history of European painting and on the place of the visual arts in society and the culture. He is at the same time the "last" of the Classicists and the first Modern artist. 

That the future social-political reality of Europe had to appear first  in the guise of its "ancient origins" was explained by Karl Marx as a kind of "law of historical representation as repetition". Before understanding the historical novelty as such of their deeds, the French bourgeoisie had to represent to itself their historical actions in the model of past myths, it had to universalize its motives and goals, before it could come to terms with its historical specificity.  A process that will be the task of the next century, that is, the bourgeois post-revolutionary century, which will be also the century of new ideological and artistic revolutions, or anticipations of revolutions.  

 “Men make their own history, but they do not make it as they please; they do not make it under self-selected circumstances, but under circumstances existing already, given and transmitted from the past. The tradition of all dead generations weighs like a nightmare on the brains of the living. And just as they seem to be occupied with revolutionizing themselves and things, creating something that did not exist before, precisely in such epochs of revolutionary crisis they anxiously conjure up the spirits of the past to their service, borrowing from them names, battle slogans, and costumes in order to present this new scene in world history in time-honored disguise and borrowed language. Thus Luther put on the mask of the Apostle Paul, the Revolution of 1789-1814 draped itself alternately in the guise of the Roman Republic and theRoman Empire, and the Revolution of 1848 knew nothing better to do than to parody, now 1789, now the revolutionary tradition of 1793-95. In like manner, the beginner who has learned a new language always translates it back into his mother tongue, but he assimilates the spirit of the new language and expresses himself freely in it only when he moves in it without recalling the old and when he forgets his native tongue.”

Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, 1852

Coming to terms with the specificity of its changed situation will be also the task assigned to the arts in the 19th century.  In the  early part of the 19th century, Neoclassicism transformed itself into a conservative style in the hands, for instance, of Ingres, a disciple of David. The 19th century is the time of the "final" crisis and demise of the Classicist or Renaissance Paradigm, that is, of the long tradition of the concept and practice of art as mimesis.  In this process art will lose its grounding on "Nature". It will find itself  with  new foundations established, from now on, on the soil of History: a dynamic, shifting and unstable ground. 

We can state that David is, in many aspects, the pioneer of this epochal shift of territory, and that the historical destiny of the art he created is one example, among others, of the new challenges, the risks and perils of art forms in the new times. From the "transcendental" domain of real, that is,  of ideal forms, art descends into the arena of history. Its vicissitudes from now on will be those that affect all the products of Time, and the first condition of what exists in Time is, indeed, mortality.

Marcelo Guimaraes Lima

Portrait of the Artist
Oil on canvas, 81 x 64 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

The Combat of Mars and Minerva
Oil on canvas, 146 x 181 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

Portrait of Marie-Francoise Buron
c. 1769
Oil on canvas, 66 x 54 cm
Musée National des Beaux-Arts, Algiers

Count Potocki
Oil on canvas, 304 x 218 cm
Muzeum Narodowe, Warsaw

 The Oath of the Horatii
Oil on canvas, 330 x 425 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

The Death of Socrates
Oil on canvas, 130 x 196 cm
Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

The Lictors Returning to Brutus the Bodies of his Sons
Oil on canvas, 323 x 422 cm
Musée du Louvre, Paris

Death of Marat,  1793

 View of the Luxembourg Garden, 1794

Napoleon in his Study
Oil on canvas, 204 x 125 cm
National Gallery of Art, Washington

Napoleon at the St. Bernard Pass
Oil on canvas, 246 x 231 cm
Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna

Mars Disarmed by Venus and the Three Graces
Oil on canvas, 308 x 262 cm
Musées Royaux des Beaux-Arts, Brussels